## ENDRESS HAUSER (2016) Principle of electrical conductivity measurement

Many liquids are essential in our daily life. They may include water, beverages, dairy products, chemicals (acids and bases) or pharmaceutical products. The quality of those liquids is determined by their chemical and physical properties. To assess those properties, various

## EMERSON (2015) Flow – Theory of DP Flow

Chapter 3 covers the theoretical and computational details for DP Flow. Its purpose is two-fold: Introduce industry users to some of the general aspects of fluid flow and specifically DP Flow technologies Explain the underlying assumptions and approaches behind the

## How to Measure Pressure and Level in Hot Process Applications with the 3051S Thermal Range Expander

This video describes how the Rosemount Thermal Range Expander addresses the challenge of obtaining accurate and reliable process level measurements in applications involving extremely hot processes. The differential pressure (DP) level technology uses two fill fluid types within a single

## How Multivariable Transmitters Work

This video provides an in depth explanation of how multivariable pressure transmitters combine three measurements into one to lower overall installation cost and make a more accurate flow measurement. The mass flow equation is altered by factors such as density

## EMERSON (2009) Level User Guide for the Instrument and Project Engineer in the Refining Industry

The refining industry is currently undergoing many changes. The existing refineries are being modernized to stay competitive. These “Brownfield” projects are being designed to upgrade refineries to improve their energy efficiency, maximize throughput and improve product quality. Improvement of energy

## MOORE INDUSTRIES (2011) Prevent False Shutdowns

My utility plant has lost thousands of dollars due to false shutdowns from failed temperature sensors. How do I know the difference between a failed sensor and a true alarm situation? Moore-Industries-2011-Prevent-False-Shutdowns.pdf Originally posted 2015-12-28 14:36:28. Republished by Blog Post

## Orifice Plate Sizing Calculator

1.Instructions In red you will find an already calculated orifice plate, feel free to substitute this numbers with your own ones. Use a dot to represent a decimal point e.g. 4353.56

## Endress Hauser (2015) Temperature Measurement Applications in Process Plants

Temperature is one of the most common measurement parameter used for monitoring and control in process industries. This paper covers some of the basics of temperature measurement, and leads into some of the technical advances that impart higher a degree

## Pressure transmitters for all applications SITRANS P

A very nice pressure transmitter video 😉 Originally posted 2016-01-24 13:54:30. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## KROHNE (2006) Corrosion & Abrasion Guidelines for Coriolis Meters

​General corrosion guidelines for process vessels, pipework and parts (such as thermo-wells or MID flowmeter earthing rings) cannot be applied to Coriolis mass flowmeters, since they refer to the bulk removal of material from comparatively thick walled components, and they

## HONEYWELL (2014) Tips to Address Temperature Measurement Reliability Challenges

Temperature is one of the most common yet critical measurements in any process industrial plant. While the technology employed in measuring temperature has remained the same over the years, many methods have emerged to counter the challenges that impact measurement

## EMERSON (2013) The Engineer’s Guide to Level Measurement for Power and Steam Generation

This Level Handbook is written as a user guide for level projects within the power and steam generation industry. Level is a wide subject and it is impossible to cover everything in one single book, but we have aimed to

## MOORE INDUSTRIES (2015) A Practical Guide to Improving Temperature Measurement Accuracy

Some processes do not require temperature measurement accuracy, and others do. However, you may be unsure whether accuracy is important for your particular application, or whether improving accuracy will make enough of a difference in your process results to justify

## EMERSON (2001) Fundamentals of Flow Metering

Measuring fluid flow is one of the most important aspects of process control. In fact, it may well be the most frequently measured process variable. This bulletin describes the nature of flow and factors affecting it. Devices commonly used to

## SARTORIOUS (2016) Handbook of Weighing Applications Balances and Scales Used as Measuring and Test Equipment in a Quality System

In many areas of applications, the balance, scale or weight value is only a means to an end. The quantity that is actually of interest is derived from the weight value or mass. For this reason, each booklet

## MOORE INDUSTRIES (2011) Enhance Accuracy Using Transmitters

​Our DCS measures the entire range of our temperature sensors. For our RTDs, that’s a span of almost 1900°F when our range of interest is only 0-250°F. The DCS input card accuracy is calculated as a percent of the 1900°F

## Emerson (2013) Rosemount DP Flowmeter Rangeability

One of the most common DP Flow Myths is that the rangeability of DP Flow technology is typically 3:1. This misperception is usually promoted by competing technologies that claim “high” rangeability of 20:1 or better. Rangeability is usually defined as

## ABB (2014) The principle of mass flow measurement

Cartoon video about the principle of measurement of a CORIOLIS flow meter. Watch it!   Originally posted 2016-01-03 10:20:52. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## E+H (2014) Medición Caudal Gases Líquidos y Vapores

Medición de caudal ¡Más importante que nunca! La seguridad de la planta, la constancia en la calidad del producto, la optimización del proceso y la protección medioambiental son sólo algunas razones por las que la medición de caudal se ha hecho cada

## Rosemount (2009) Manual de consulta de conjuntos de termorresistencias y termopares

Medición de temperatura con termorresistencias Contiene información sobre la descripción y el principio de medición, la estructura, los métodos de conexión y los ámbitos de aplicación. Medición de temperatura con termopares Contiene información sobre la descripción y el principio de medición,

## WIKA (2008) Handbook Pressure and Temperature Measurement

Industrial development now faces challenges and opportunities of unprecedented magnitude and diversity. Economical manufacturing processes for existing or new products, new technology trends, the internationalization of markets and conditions of competition, new research developments and questions of safety for man

## Endress Hauser (2015) The Differential Pressure Flow Measuring Principle

Very interesting VIDEO about how Differential Pressure Flowmeters works! A must for any instrumentation technician! Watch it! Originally posted 2016-01-03 10:17:40. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## Cropico (2007) A Guide to Low Resistance Measurement

The measurement of very large or very small quantities is always difficult, and resistance measurement is no exception. Values above 1GΩ and values below 1Ω both present measurement problems. Cropico is a world leader in low resistance measurement; we produce a comprehensive range of low resistance

## EMERSON (2015) The Engineer’s Guide to Overfill Prevention

What is a tank overfill? In this book it is defined as the point when the product inside a tank rises to the critical high level. This is the highest level in the tank that product can reach without detrimental

## Moore Industries (2011) False Spike Leads to Expensive Shutdowns

My temperature transmitter produces a false spike before driving downscale on burnout. This causes an expensive safety shutdown. Any suggestions for an alternative? Moore-Industries-2011-False-Spike-Leads-to-Expensive-Shutdowns.pdf Originally posted 2015-12-28 14:31:59. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## Endress Hauser (2015) The Thermal Flow Measuring Principle

Interesting VIDEO about Flow Measurement based on Thermal Principle. Watch it!   Originally posted 2016-01-03 10:20:11. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## Magnetrol (2003) Field Instrumentation Technical Handbook

A good Technical Handbook on Field instrumentation. Please have a look! Magnetrol (2003) Field Instrumentation Technical Handbook Originally posted 2014-06-26 15:17:25. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## Moore (1999) Reference Flow Measurement

Reference flow measurement concepts! Simple and good!   Moore (1999) Reference Flow Measurement Originally posted 2014-06-26 15:32:58. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## SARTORIOUS (2016) Manual of Weighing Applications – Density

In many common areas of application, a weighing instrument or the weight it measures is just a means to an end: The value that is actually sought is calculated from the weight or mass that was determined by the weighing

## Rosemount (2012) Thermowell Calculations

Thermowells are essentially a circular cylinder installed like a cantilever into the process piping. They provide process condition protection and a process seal for temperature sensors. As a process fluid passes around the thermowell, low pressure vortices are created on

## Moore Industries (2011) Universal Temperature Transmitters Cut Costs

It’s increasingly expensive to stock the various DCS input cards required by all the temperature applications around my facility. How can I economize? Moore-Industries-2011-Universal-Temperature-Transmitters-Cut-Costs.pdf Originally posted 2015-12-28 14:38:33. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## MOORE INDUSTRIES (2011) Corrosion Causes Inaccurate Measurement

In our chemical plant, corrosion at the connection terminals causes unpredictable drift in the RTD measurements. We clean and re-calibrate regularly, but labor and off-spec product costs are no longer acceptable. Moore-Industries-2011-Corrosion-Causes-Inaccurate-Measurement.pdf Originally posted 2015-12-28 14:29:59. Republished by Blog Post

## Enraf (2012) Art of Tank Gauging

This document gives an introduction into modern tank gauging, how and where it can be used. Accurate Servo- and Radar gauging, Hydrostatic Tank Gauging (HTG) and the Hybrid Inventory Management System (HIMS), combining the advantages of all systems, are described. An uncertainty analysis of

## Acromag (2011) Criteria for Temperature Sensor Selections of TC and RTD sensor types

Temperature reigns as the most often measured process parameter in industry. While temperature measurement utilizes sensors of many forms, the actual measurement of temperature is accomplished via only five basic sensor types: Thermocouple (T/C), Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD), Thermistor, Infrared Detector, and

## DRESSER (2003) The Application of Temperature and Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement

COMBINED BOYLE’S – CHARLES’ GAS LAWS To convert measured volume at metered pressure and temperature to selling volume at agreed base pressure and temperature. DRESSER (2003) The Application of Temperature and Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement Originally posted 2014-06-26 15:23:06. Republished by

## Moore Industries (2011) Get the Average of Three RTD Signals

We need to replace obsolete computing modules used to calculate the average temperature in our oven. Is there a better way to accomplish this averaging? Moore-Industries-2011-Get-the-Average-of-Three-RTD-Signals.pdf Originally posted 2015-12-28 14:32:55. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## Smith Metering (2000) Fundamentals of Orifice

Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate, economical measurement of process fluids. Orifice metering satisfies most flow measurement applications and is the most common flow meter in use  today. The orifice meter, sometimes called the head loss flow meter, is

## SAMSON (1999) Temperature Regulators

The characteristic feature of self-operated temperature regulators is their compact design, including a sensor, a valve and a capillary tube. Their simple operating principle is based on fundamental mechanical, physical and thermodynamic laws. A temperature control loop with a heat

## E+H (2007) Liquid level measurement – Basics 101

The perfect level technology that works for every liquid level and point level application does not exist. Hydrostatic pressure has been around, it seems forever, and is proven in many applications. Non-contact radar and guided wave radar level instrumentation are

## Moore Industries (2011) Differential Temperature in a Heat Exchanger

How can I monitor the temperature difference between the hot product flowing in and the cooled product flowing out of a heat exchanger (ΔT)? Moore-Industries-2011-Differential-Temperature-in-a-Heat-Exchanger.pdf Originally posted 2015-12-28 14:30:34. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## KROHNE (2000) Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Flow Measurement

Ultrasonic flowmeters have been used in industry for over 20 years for the volumetric flowmetering of liquids, gases and – more recently – steam. Basically, the distinction is made between two methods: The Doppler process In order to work, this

## Daniel Measurement and Control (2014) Gas Turbine Meters

This document gives an introduction to Gas Turbine Meters. The gas industry has a wide variety of measurement equipment to satisfy nearly every application need. Metering is no exception. The bulk of gas measurement in the U.S. is handled by

## SCHWARZ,F.C. (2014) Fundamental Principles of Rotary Displacement Meters

All rotary piston meters, commonly known as rotary meters, utilize the fundamental 1846 lobed impeller design of the Roots brothers.  Originally designed for water pump applications, this fundamental style has been parent to virtually all interweaving rotor designs applied to gas and liquid compression, pumping

## Moore Industries (2011) Total Sensor Diagnostics Cuts Time and Cost

We are wasting hundreds of man-hours each year on maintenance issues with our temperature sensors. There must be a better way. Moore-Industries-2011-Total-Sensor-Diagnostics-Cuts-Time-and-Cost.pdf Originally posted 2015-12-28 14:37:37. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

## E+H (2014) Medicion Caudal Gases Líquidos y Vapores

Endress+Hauser es un proveedor global de soluciones para instrumentación y automatización. La empresa distribuye instrumentación a los sectores de producción y logística de la industria de procesos, desarrolla sensores y sistemas que obtienen información del proceso, transmiten los datos correspondientes

## KEITHLEY (2007) How to Select the Right Temperature Sensor

The most widely measured physical parameter is temperature. Whether in process industry applications or in laboratory settings, accurate temperature measurements are a critical part of success. Accurate temperature measurements are needed in medical applications, materials research in labs, electrical/electronic component

## Phoenix Contact (2006) Wi-Fi… Why Now. Exploring New Wireless Technologies for Industrial Applications

As Ethernet and Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity quickly become the “serial port” of the future it’s clear that wireless technology trends will closely follow. Additionally, recently available spread spectrum technologies are enabling new applications that go beyond simple wire and

## BAHNER,M. (2001) A Practical Overview of Level Measurement Technologies

There are multiple technologies available on the market to measure level. Each and every technology works, when applied properly. This presentation will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of RF Admittance, Capacitance, Ultrasonic, Radar, Nuclear, Differential Pressure, and Bubblers level measurement technologies. BAHNER,M.

## Moore (1994) Pressure and Temperature Compensation of an Orifice Meter using the Model 352 Single-loop Controller

This application note focuses on the idea that orifice meters require compensation whenever they are used to measure gas flow in lines that have variable operating pressure and temperature.   Moore (1994) Pressure and Temperature Compensation of an Orifice Meter

## BABBITT (2017) Magnetic level indicator

BABBITT (2017) Magnetic level indicator

## MOORE INDUSTRIES (2015) A Practical Guide to Improving Temperature Measurement Accuracy

Some processes do not require temperature measurement accuracy, and others do. However, you may be unsure whether accuracy is important for your particular application, or whether improving accuracy will make enough of a difference in your process results to justify

## VEGA (2015) Resistance List

When using aggressive products, the user is very often confronted with the product compatiblilty of devices. The following resistance list is based on various material charts and is supplemented by our own trials and experiences. These specifications are not always

## MOXA (2007) Industrial Wireless Guidebook

The latest development in industrial device networking is the adoption of wireless technology for industrial applications. This is a very exciting development with potentially enormous benefits for system integrators and end users. However, many users may have questions about the

## MOORE INDUSTRIES (2007) Why Use Temperature Transmitters Instead of Direct Wiring

MOORE INDUSTRIES (2007) Why Use Temperature Transmitters Instead of Direct Wiring

## ENDRESS HAUSER (2017) Frequency and Antenna Selection Effects on Accuracy of Free Space Radar

Free-space radar transmitters for level measurement typically use 6, 26 and 80 GHz frequencies. Recently, there has been a lot of hype concerning high frequency radar transmitters, where some manufacturers claim: the higher the frequency the better the performance. This

## IRCON (2013) INFRARED TEMPERATURE SENSORS OPERATION AND SELECTION

There are many ways to measure temperature in a process. Sensors, such as thermocouples, RTDs and infrared thermometers are the most common temperature sensors utilized today. A noncontact infrared thermometer has the advantage of being able to measure the product

## Ashcroft (2009) Seven Steps to Select a Pressure Gauge

This small guide gives all you need to select a Pressure Gauge. 1. ACCURACY For a mechanical pressure gauge, accuracy is defined as a percentage of the full-scale range. While requirements differ from one industry to another, the following are

## FMC Technologies (2015) Fundamentals of Liquid Turbine Meters

Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 50 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating

## FOXBORO (1961) ORIFICE PLATES, FLANGES AND CONNECTIONS

FOXBORO (1961) ORIFICE PLATES, FLANGES AND CONNECTIONS

## EMERSON (2017) Guidelines for Choosing and Installing Radar in Stilling Wells and Bypass Chambers

This document provides a guideline for choosing and installing Rosemount™ Process radar devices in stilling wells and bypass chambers. Even though process radars generally provide robust operation installed in still pipes, all process radars regardless of make or type are

## ENDRESS HAUSER (2017) Frequency and Antenna Selection Effects on Accuracy of Free Space Radar

Free-space radar transmitters for level measurement typically use 6, 26 and 80 GHz frequencies. Recently, there has been a lot of hype concerning high  frequency radar transmitters, where some manufacturers claim: the higher the frequency the better the performance.

## ENDRESS HAUSER (2016) Selecting Radar Level Instruments for Custody Transfer

In many applications, higher-accuracy measurements are required to protect the customer from over-billing and the supplier from under-billing. Common products requiring this level of accuracy are typically oils, fuels, edible oils,  and alcohols. In the oil & gas industry, this

## INVENSYS (2014) Medidores de Caudal por Presión Diferencial

Medidores de Presion Diferencial La medición de flujo por presión diferencial es la medida de caudal más común hoy en día. Hay tres elementos importantes que se combinan para crear una Medida de Caudal por Presión Diferencial : El elemento primario

## HOFFER FLOW CONTROLS (2016) ESTIMATING ERRORS IN GAS MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS WHICH DO NOT USE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE COMPENSATION

HOFFER-FLOW-CONTROLS-2016-ESTIMATING-ERRORS-IN-GAS-MEASUREMENT-SYSTEMS-WHICH-DO-NOT-USE-TEMPERATURE-AND-PRESSURE-COMPENSATION.pdf

## EMERSON (2015) Daniel Meter – Liquid Turbine Flow Meter

TURBINE METER THEORY The basic theory behind Daniel liquid turbine meters is relatively simple. Fluid flow through the meter impinges upon the turbine blades which are free to rotate about an axis along the center line of the turbine housing.

## FOXBORO (1965) 69TA Current to Air Transducer

This is a very old instruction manual about the foxboro 69TA Current to Air Transducer (i to p). FOXBORO (1965) Foxboro 69TA Current to Air Transducer

## SPIRAX SARCO (1997) M410 Orifice Plate Assemblies

SPIRAX SARCO (1997) M410 Orifice Plate Assemblies

## BRISTOL BABCOCK (1989) Flowmeter Applications

BRISTOL BABCOCK (1997) Flowmeter Applications

## EMERSON (2016) Achieve Accurate Process Temperature Measurement with Surface Sensor Innovation

Temperature is the most commonly measured variable in the process industry. It is often a critical factor in determining process efficiency and product quality. There are several ways to measure temperature in the process industry and each present their own

## Analog Dialogue (2010) Two Ways to Measure Temperature Using Thermocouples Feature Simplicity, Accuracy, and FlexibilityAnalog Dialogue (2010) Two Ways to Measure Temperature Using Thermocouples Feature Simplicity, Accuracy, and Flexibility

The thermocouple is a simple, widely used component for measuring temperature. This article provides a basic overview of thermocouples, describes common challenges encountered when designing with them, and suggests two signal conditioning solutions. The first solution combines both reference-junction compensation

## YOKOGAWA (2016) Pressure Handbook

As industries strive to improve control of processes, the quality of the measurement of that process is often overlooked. Good quality measurement is the first requirement of any control scheme, new or old. No matter how good your DCS, PLC,

## OMEGA (2002) Transactions Vol 1 – Non-Contact Temperature Measurement

Since its founding in 1962, OMEGA has grown from a manufacturer of a single product..a fine gauge thermocouple..into being an established global leader in the scientific and technical marketplace, offering more than 68,000 state-of-the-art instrumentation and control devices. And although

## Rosemount (1998) Pressure Fundamentals and Transmitter Selection

This document defines pressure and fundamentals of pressure measurement, as they relate to industry, and factors that should be considered in selecting a pressure transmitter. Included are definitions of functional specifications, performance specifications, and material selection, and their relationships to

## 18 Essential Papers That Any Instrumentation Engineer Should Read

Here is a list of essential paper/primers that any instrumentation engineer should read, please follow the links above to get the pdf file : Flow Pressure Temperature Compensation Formula Theory of DP Flow Fluids Basics and Concepts DP Flow Introduction

## Omega Engineering (2007) What are RTD Sensors

What is an RTD? Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) are temperature sensors that contain a resistor that changes resistance value as its temperature changes. They have been used for many years to measure temperature in laboratory and industrial processes, and have

## IRCON (2013) INFRARED TEMPERATURE SENSORS OPERATION AND SELECTION

There are many ways to measure temperature in a process. Sensors, such as thermocouples, RTDs and infrared thermometers are the most common temperature sensors utilized today. A noncontact infrared thermometer has the advantage of being able to measure the product

## IRCON (1998) Selection of IRCON temperature controllers

IRCON (1998) Selection of IRCON temperature controllers

## SETRA SYSTEMS (2015) Liquid Level Measurement App Note

The pressure measured at the bottom of a liquid filled tank is proportional to both the height (head) and density of the liquid. For best results the pressure should be sensed by a pressure transmitter mounted at the lowest point

## Fluid Components International (2012) Installation Recommendations for FCI Single-Point Thermal Dispersion Flow Meters

Optimizing Flow Meter Installation Ensures Performance and Instrument Accuracy All flow meter technologies have recommended installation and engineering practices to ensure they meet their published specifications and for optimal performance, accuracy and repeatability. Flow meter users are frequently challenged with

## PYROMATION (1996) How To Select And Use The Right Temperature Sensor

Having been involved in the design, manufacture and application of temperature sensors for twenty years, I have done a number of training seminars on temperature sensors. After presenting long winded explanations as to how RTD’s (Resistance Temperature Detectors) and thermocouples

## PYROMATION (2009) International Thermocouple Color Codes

PYROMATION (2009) International Thermocouple Color Codes

## IRCON (2006) Infrared Temperature Measurement Answers and Solutions Handbook

IRCON has been solving industry’s toughest temperature measurement problems since 1962 More than 300,000 IRCON temperature measurement instruments, including a wide range of infrared thermometers, pyrometers, industrial thermal imaging systems and accessories, have been successfully installed in manufacturing facilities around

## Sierra Monitor Corporation (2006) How to Select a Flame Detector

Planning and installing flame detectors requires consideration of the nature of the fire, the protected area, environmental conditions, detector capabilities and limitations and user expectations. For instance, is it more important to select a detector that alarms a few seconds

## IRCON (2004) Introduction to Infrared Thermometry

Infrared thermometers have the ability to measure temperature without physical contact. The ability to accomplish this is based on the fact that every object emits radiant energy, and the intensity of this radiation is a function of its temperature. The

## National Instruments (2013) Temperature Sensor Measurement Fundamentals Series

What instrument is used to measure temperature? National Instruments (2013) Sensor Measurement Fundamentals Series

## MAGNETROL (2008) LIQUID INTERFACE LEVEL MEASUREMENT

The need for interface measurement arises whenever immiscible liquids–those incapable of mixing—reside within the same vessel. The lighter material rises to the top and the heavier material settles at the bottom. In oil production, for example, water or steam is

## Fluid Components International (2009) Transitional Flow Effects on Flow Meter Measuring Accuracy

Vortab Flow Conditioning Eliminates Transitional Flow Effects Vortab flow conditioners are widely recognized and applied in flow metering applications to correct the unpredictable effects of flow profile shifts caused by limited straight-run, upstream pipe geometry changes (e.g. damper positioning) and

## Rosemount (2011) Velocity Collars No Longer Best

WHY USE VELOCITY COLLARS? The goal of a velocity collar is to reduce the effective unsupported length of a thermowell. In theory, this helps accomplish two things: 1. Eliminates vortex-induced failures. Shorter unsupported lengths raise the natural frequency of a

## Fluid Components International (2012) Flare Gas Flow Measurement and Control

In oil/gas production, refining and storage operations around the globe, flare gas systems are used to burn-off and dispose of waste, excess or off-gases, and as a safety system. The accurate, responsive and reliable measurement of flare gas is essential

## Fluid Components International (2008) Comparison of Differential Pressure and Thermal Dispersion Technologies

As the costs of fuels and consumables (natural gas, hydrogen, oxygen, etc.) continue to rise, the ability to accurately measure the amount used in a process becomes significant in controlling costs and determining bottom line profits. It may have been

## AMETEK (2001) A Practical Guide to Radio Frecuency Level Controls

AMETEK (2001) A Practical Guide to Radio Frecuency Level Controls

## AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES (2008) Hints for Selecting the Correct Temperature Sensor for Your Application

If you want to make reliable temperature measurements, you need to carefully select the right temperature sensor for your application. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of temperature sensors will help you take the proper precautions when you set up a

The technical benefits of radar as a level measurement technique are clear. Radar provides a non-contact sensor that is virtually unaffected by changes in process temperature, pressure or the gas and vapour composition within a vessel. In addition, the measurement

## Drexelbrook Engineering Company (1997) A Practical Overview of Level Measurement Technologies

Introduction There are multiple technologies available on the market to measure level. Each and every technology works, when applied properly. This presentation will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of RF Admittance, Capacitance, Ultrasonic, Radar, Nuclear, Differential Pressure, and Bubblers level

## TUVNEL (2010) Selecting a Flow Meter

Introduction With a very large number of different flow meters based on over a hundred different operating principles, selecting a flow meter for a specific task can be a daunting prospect for even the most experienced metering engineer. With so

## Rosemount (2000) Level Measurement

This small doc summarizes the level measurement technology using pressure sensors. It will help the young instrumentation technician to get a better understanding of this old technology, and also understand the advantages and disadvantages of the use of pressure sensors

## ABB (2014) Two Phase Flow Considerations for Coriolis Meters

This small doc gives the instrumentation technician the basic knowledge about this important issue regarding the coriolis flowmeters and also other technologies. ABB (2014) Two Phase Flow Considerations for Coriolis Meters

## MAGNETROL (2013) The Impact of Signal-to-Noise Ratio on Guided Wave Radar Performance

This paper describes the importance of two basic factors (signal to noise ratio and pulse transmission) which defines the performance of this type of level measurement. Guided Wave Radar (GWR), although a new technology relative to the industrial level market,

## SICK (2014) 8 Most Common Level Sensing Methods

Level sensors have been a part of manufacturing processes for several decades, in industries as diverse as food and beverage, semiconductors, and pharmaceutical. However, equipment manufacturers and users may be surprised at both the breadth and sophistication of level sensing

## KROHNE (1995) Fundamentals of Radar Techniques

This old document describes all the basics about level radar technology. It’s a must read document by the young instrumentation technician.   KROHNE (1995) Fundamentals of Radar Techniques

## Conax Technologies (2010) Ten Tips To Ensure Accurate Temperature Sensor Measurement

From choosing the right temperature sensor for your particular process application to the periodic recalibration of that temperature sensor, these tips can help you ensure temperature measurement accuracy and get the most out of your process. BY GARY BARNHARD

## Magnetrol (2003) Selecting the Right Magnetic Level Indicator

Basic information fot the instrumentation technician and the instrumentation engineer regarding the magnetic level indicators. Introduction Companies in the process industry need the ability to visually monitor liquid levels in vessels (boilers, storage tanks, processing units, etc.). Traditionally, armored glass

## What is the Difference Between Absolute, Gauge and Differential Pressure?

Any good instrumentation technician needs to know the difference between the basic types of pressure measurement. Which is the pressure formula? How do you convert pressure to force? Pressure formula may be expressed as a force per unit area or

## DANIEL MEASUREMENT (2010) Fundamentals of Orifice Meter Measurement

What is an Orifice Meter? An orifice meter is a conduit and a restriction to create a pressure drop. An hour glass is a form of orifice. A nozzle, venturi or thin sharp edged orifice can be used as the

## ROSEMOUNT (1995) Magnetic Flowmeter Fundamentals

The magnetic flowmeter is one of the most flexible and universally applicable flow measurement systems available. It provides completely obstructionless flow metering, is nearly insensitive to fluid properties, and is capable of measuring the harshest corrosive fluids. It installs like

## SETRA SYSTEMS (2015) Best Practices in Measuring Tank Level

Whether you are looking for a solution to solve a water supply issue to a building or trying to monitor a process tank within your factory, the proper tank level is extremely important to the success of your project. There

## SETRA SYSTEMS (2015) How to Choose the Right Pressure Sensor for Critical Environments

Selecting a low differential pressure transducer (DPT) for critical care ventilation is one of the most important decisions mechanical designers, engineers and architects can make. These transducers perform precise monitoring and contamination control of isolation room pressures in critical environments.

## SETRA SYSTEMS (2015) How to Troubleshoot a Pressure Transducer

Pressure transducers today are more rugged and reliable than ever before. Made of rugged stainless steel construction, they provide abundant overpressure protection, improved total error band (TEB) and offer negligible orientation and vibration effects. They are ideal for long-term use

## SETRA SYSTEMS (2015) How to Select the best Pressure transducer for industrial applications

How to Select the best Pressure transducer for industrial applications Today’s technologically advanced pressure transducers are more accurate, reliable and rugged than ever before. They are ideal for long-term use even in harsh environments of extreme temperature, humidity, and vibration.

## KROHNE (2003) Fundamentals of Radar Technology for Level Gauging

Fundamentals of Level Radar Measurement This is a very didactic document from Krohne company. It presents a deep view about the radar technologies and the different method used to measure a level – continuous wave (CW) radar, pulse radar, Time

## TUVNEL (2010) Introductory guide to differential pressure flow meters

This is a basic guide to differential pressure flowmeters, it provides information about the different types of meters available and their main advantages and disadvantages. They also include fundamental background information to understand how the flowmeters work. TUVNEL (2010) Introductory

## TRERICE (2009) Pressure Gauges – Design and Operation

A pressure gauge is a mechanical instrument designed to measure the internal pressure and/or vacuum of a vessel or system. Trerice Pressure Gauges are offered in a variety of styles, sizes, and wetted part materials to meet the demands of

## EMERSON (2005) Flow Measurement

This manual discusses gas flow measurement based on philosophies expressed in AGA (American Gas Association) and API (American Petroleum Institute) guidelines. NOTE: AGA and API do not certify manufacturers’ equipment for flow measurement. Products of The Flow Computer Division of

## Pressure Temperature Compensation Formula

What is Flow Compensation? Why do you do process temperature and pressure flow compensation? In steam or gas flow measurement, the density of the steam or gas changes as pressure and temperature change. This change in density can affect the accuracy

## Flow Line Options (2011) Ultrasonic Transmitters vs. Guided Wave Radar for Level Measurement

With over 20 different level measurement technologies on the market today, it is important to choose the right level transmitter for your process conditions. This document provides information on two of the most commonly used level measurement technologies – Ultrasonic

## SICK (2012) 8 Most Common Level Sensing Methods

Level sensors have been a part of manufacturing processes for several decades, in industries as diverse as food and beverage, semiconductors, and pharmaceutical. However, equipment manufacturers and users may be surprised at both the breadth and sophistication of level sensing

## TURCK (2013) DEFINING PRESSURE WHAT IS PRESSURE AND WHY IS IT CRITICAL TO PROCESS?

In its most basic form, pressure is defined as the amount of force being applied to an area. As this force is distributed over a specific area, a change in movement of the defined area is occurring. It is important

## TURCK (2013) Types of Pressure When and Why Are They Used?

Without measurement there is no control. As with any type of measurement, results need to be expressed in a defined and clear way to allow everyone to interpret and apply those results correctly. Accurate measurements and good measurement practices are

## METTLER TOLEDO (2009) Battling Corrosion in Refineries

Corrosion in refinery operations has been, and still is, the subject of many studies, papers, courses and web forums. Although a lot of what has been written shows that significant progress in understanding corrosion has been made, it also makes

## EMERSON (2016) 7 Ways to improve Productivity and Process Operations with Pressure Instrumentation

To achieve operational goals, processing facilities must consistently produce at optimal throughput levels. Successfully meeting the challenges of minimizing equipment maintenance, maximizing uptime, accounting for process variability and achieving faster startups can make the difference between achieving production and revenue

## Knick (2012) pH measurement in difficult applications

Knick-2012-pH-measurement-in-difficult-applications.pdf

## KROHNE (2012) Principles of Leak Detection

​Pipeline networks are the most economic and safest method of transport for mineral oil, gases and other fluid products. Pipelines have to meet high demands for safety, reliability and efficiency. Most pipelines, regardless of what they transport, are designed with

## KROHNE (2011) Principles of Electromagnetic Flow Measurement

In many industries, measuring devices and sensors are an important part of process control technology and in equipping automated plants. The significance of flow measurement is reflected in the variety of measuring methods specifically designed for this purpose. Because of

## KROHNE (2003) Fundamental principles of Electromagnetic Flow Measurement

KROHNE-2003-Fundamental-principles-of-Electromagnetic-Flow-Measurement.pdf

## Rosemount (2000) Density Measurement

The following information describes how to measure the density of a material for constant and varying level applications, using basic level measurements. Rosemount-2000-Density-Measurement.pdf

## Orifice Plate Installation Guidelines

1.Introduction – Installing an Orifice Meter At the end of this post you will find the EMERSON document who explains the basic orifice plate installation guidelines, including: orifice plate tap orientation orifice plate tapping locations orifice tapping etc… This post

## Rosemount (2009) Rosemount DP Flow Gas Flow Measurement

In gas flow measurement, the density of the gas changes as pressure and temperature change. This change in density can affect the accuracy of the measured flow rate if it is uncompensated. Rosemount-2009-Rosemount-DP-Flow-Gas-Flow-Measurement.pdf

## MCCROMETER(2011) V-CONE FLOW METER TECHNICAL BRIEF

The McCrometer V-Cone® Flow meter is a patented technology that accurately measures flow over a wide range of Reynolds numbers, under all kinds of conditions and for a variety of fluids. It operates on the same physical principle as other

## ADDITEL (2016) Why Temperature Compensation Really Matters for Pressure Measurement

Have you ever wondered how much impact environmental temperature has on your pressure sensors? Nearly every pressure sensor has some sort of environmental temperature specification on its data sheet. This technical note explains the environmental temperature effects on pressure sensors,

## ABB (2016) Thermal Mass Flowmeter Sensyflow FMT Fundamentals & Measuring Principle

t ​ags:Mass, Thermal​ ABB-2016-Thermal-Mass-Flowmeter-Sensyflow-FMT-Fundamentals-Measuring-Principle.pdf

## HACH (2014) pH Electrode Cleaning and Maintenance Guide

HACH-2014-pH-Electrode-Cleaning-and-Maintenance-Guide.pdf

## Rosemount Analytical (2010) Theory and Practice of pH Measurement

​The determination of pH is one of the most common process chemical measurements made today. This booklet explains the principles behind the measurement and discusses ways of avoiding common pitfalls. The booklet also discusses industrial ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) measurements. Although

## Rosemount Analytical (2010) The Theory of pH Measurement

WHAT IS pH? pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a water solution. The acidity or alkalinity of a water solution is determined by the relative number of hydrogen ions (H+) or hydroxyl ions (OH-) present. Acidic

## Radiometer Analytical (2007) pH Theory and Practice

​The subject of this booklet is the potentiometric measurement of pH. This is the way in which pH is defined and is the optimal method for obtaining precise results. Reliable and accurate measurements depend on a number of factors: the

## METTLER TOLEDO (2015) Hints and Tips to Improve Accuracy In DO and pH Measurement

​High quality and efficacy of products and efficiency in production are the main goals in pharmaceutical manufacturing. To achieve these aims, production processes must be stable, predictable and operate consistently at the target level of performance. Process analytics using in-line

## METTLER TOLEDO (2013) A Guide to pH Measurement – the Theory and Practice of pH Applications

The aim of this book is to give a representative description of pH measurement in the process industries. The actual sensor, the pH electrode, is therefore the main focus of the text. Correct sensor use is fundamental for a meaningful

## METTLER TOLEDO (2007) A Guide to pH Measurement – The theory and practice of laboratory pH applications

This guide focuses on giving a clear and practical description of how to measure pH in the laboratory environment. A lot of tips and hints are given for the important points and the whole measurement description is later backed up

## ARJAY AUTOMATION (2016) The Principle Behind the Coriolis Mass Flow Meter

Have you ever witnessed this phenomenon? When a hose filled with water swings but it does not twist. But when a water flow is turned on, the water is forced through the swinging hose. The hose twists as a result

## Fluid Components International LLC (2016) Best Practices Engineering Guide Installation Recommendations for FCI Single-Point Thermal Dispersion Flow Meters

All flow meter technologies have recommended installation and engineering practices to ensure they meet their published specifications and for optimal performance, accuracy and repeatability. Flow meter users are frequently challenged with wide variations in their actual field conditions and installation

## How Averaging Pitot Tubes Work – Rosemount Annubar Technology

This video provides a detailed explanation of how Annubar averaging pitot tubes work, including reduction of permanent pressure loss to reduce overall costs. Features and benefits are presented to show how averaging pitot tubes are an ideal flow measurement principle

## Rosemount Annubar Averaging Pitot Tube Installation: Part 1/4 Tool Requirements and Receiving Guide

This video explains the tools required to install an Annubar Averaging Pitot Tube, as well as Inspection process recommendations upon receiving a new flowmeter.

## FOXBORO (2010) Vortex Shedding Tutorial

The vortex shedding flowmeter first emerged 25 to 30 years ago and has steadily grown in acceptance since then to be a major flow measurement technique. Its appeal is due, in part, to the fact that it has no moving

## EMERSON (2013) The Engineer’s Guide to Industrial Temperature Measurement

This handbook provides a thorough discussion of the considerations for selecting the proper measurement system for a wide variety of applications and conditions. The engineered system selection guidelines are suitable for almost every industrial application.   EMERSON (2013) The Engineer’s

## EMERSON (2015) Flow – DP Flow Introduction

This handbook is intended to help engineers and process technicians bring all the elements of DP Flow together in a comprehensive reference. The book will present enough theory and technical background to provide a solid context for engineering, procurement, and

## EMERSON (2015) Flow – Fluids Basics and Concepts

This chapter presents an overview of the physical properties of fluids, a review of basic concepts, and covers the fundamentals required to understand the theory of measuring flow, which is presented in Chapter 3. A fluid is a substance that

## WIKA (2013) Application of thermocouples

In industrial electrical temperature measurement, two groups of sensors are commonly used: Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) Thermocouples (TC) Both sensor types have their advantages and disadvantages. The commonly used Pt100 RTDs are especially suited for measurements in the lower to

## EMERSON (2013) The Engineer’s Guide to Level Measurement

This Level Handbook is written as a user guide for level projects in various industries. Level is a wide subject and it is impossible to cover everything in one single book, but we have aimed to include information we know

## SARTORIOUS (2016) Manual of Weighing Applications – Counting

In many everyday areas of operation, the scale or the weight is only a means to an end: the quantity that is actually of interest is first calculated from the weight or the mass. Therefore, this weighing applications handbook covers

## E+H (2011) Level measurement – level detection and continuous level

What is Endress+Hauser’s complete product offering? Many of our customers ask this question. After all, our competence in products, solutions and services is not always appreciated. We have developed from a supplier of instrumentation, to a provider of complete systems

## Controlair (2010) Bubble-Tube Level System

The L100 Bubble-Tube Level System is comprised of fully self-contained instruments requiring only connections to air or gas supply, dip tube and electrical power source to provide precise level indication. Because only the stationary dip tube and the purged gas

## MASONEILAN (1963) 12000 SERIES LIQUID LEVEL CONTROLLERS LTR

Masoneilan Level Controllers The Masoneilan 12000 Series liquid pneumatic level controllers are based on variable displacement measurement and employ the deflection balance control principle. They reflect many years of Masoneilan’s experience in solving liquid level control problems. They provide accurate

## Oil & Gas Product News (2015) A practical guide to improving temperature measurement accuracy

Some processes do not require temperature measurement accuracy,and others do. However,you may be unsure whether accuracy is important for your particular application, or whether improving accuracy will make enough of a difference in your process results to justify the cost

## Moore Industries (2011) Temperature Calibration Made Easier

Precise temperature calibration is time consuming. Is there a better alternative? Moore-Industries-2011-Temperature-Calibration-Made-Easier.pdf

## Moore Industries (2011) Mass Flow Temperature Compensation

We pressure and temperature compensate the volumetric flow readings in our pipeline applications. The temperature accuracy is critical, especially for gasses such as ethylene that see larger changes in mass as temperature changes. Moore-Industries-2011-Mass-Flow-Temperature-Compensation.pdf

## Moore Industries (2011) Interfacing Temperature Sensors to a DCS

We’re upgrading our pulp mill. What’s the best way for me to interface existing thermocouple (T/C) signals with our DCS? Moore-Industries-2011-Interfacing-Temperature-Sensors-to-a-DCS.pdf

## Moore Industries (2011) High Accuracy Clean Room Monitoring

Inaccuracies and excessive drift with our existing temperature transmitters are causing fluctuations in our clean room temperature. The off-spec product and frequent recalibrations are costing big dollars. There must be a better alternative. Moore-Industries-2011-High-Accuracy-Clean-Room-Monitoring.pdf

## Moore Industries (2010) Flexible Temperature Sensor

Flexible temperature sensors are the new frontier in accurate temperature measurements and easy maintenance. The WORM’s mission: to fit nearly everywhere, to be quickly cut to the correct length, and to reduce the number of spare parts a plant has

## Moore Industries (1998) Why Use Temperature Transmitters Instead of Direct Wiring

Here are some really good reasons why you should use Moore Industries’ temperature transmitters instead of direct wiring sensors to your DCS or PLC. Moore-Industries-1998-Why-Use-Temperature-Transmitters-Instead-of-Direct-Wiring.pdf

## EMERSON (2011) Thermowell Calculation Report

Thermowell Calculation Report Sample EMERSON-2011-Thermowell-Calculation-Report.pdf

## Acromag (2015) How to Prevent Temperature Measurement Errors When Installing Thermocouple Sensors and Transmitters

Nearly two-thirds of all temperature measurement in the US makes use of the thermocouple in some form. Likewise, most industrial applications remotely sense temperature using thermocouples, and optionally transmit the thermocouple signal some distance using industrial transmitters for the purpose

## ABB (2012) The ABB Guide to Fast pH Measurement

In basic terms, pH is a measurement of the relative amount of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in an aqueous solution using measuring and reference electrodes with an analysis and display unit for calculating and displaying pH readings. These systems may

## ENDRESS HAUSER (2007) Medición del pH en procesos industriales

Determinar el pH es esencial en todas las industrias. La monitorización de la calidad del producto o de reacciones químicas se realiza frecuentemente mediante mediciones del pH. El valor del pH está relacionado con la concentración de iones de hidrógeno

## ABB (2011) Industrial Flow Measurement Basics and Practice

In the recent decades, the market for the products of the industrial process industries has changed greatly. The manufacture of mass products has shifted to locations where raw materials are available economically. Competitive pressures have forced a swing to specialization

## FOXBORO (1969) Gas Flow Computing

FOXBORO-1969-Gas-Flow-Computing.pdf

## E+H (2007) Level measurement

What is Endress+Hauser’s complete product offering? Our competence in products, solutions and services is always appreciated. We have developed from a supplier of instrumentation to a provider of complete systems with the goal of serving our customers throughout the

## ENDRESS & HAUSER (2013) Caudal Principios de Medida

Caudal Principios de Medida El caudal es utilizado a nivel industrial para dos propósitos fundamentales : Control de procesos Contabilidad Los líquidos son esencialmente incompresibles. Los gases y vapores pueden cambiar su volumen bajo la influencia de la presión, lo

## Micro Motion (1992) Mass Flow and Density Sensor Selection Guide Metric Units Version

Micro-Motion-1992-Mass-Flow-and-Density-Sensor-Selection-Guide.PDF

## ABB (2011) Industrial Temperature Measurements Basics and Practice

Automation is a growing, worldwide fundamental technology. The driving force for its growth are the variety of distinct economical and environmental requirements of the basic food and energy supply for an efficient, low emission utilization of natural resources and energy

## Endress & Hauser (2000) Relative dielectric constant εr (dk value)

The relative dielectric constant (the dk-value) of liquids and bulk solid materials can – next to other influencing factors – be decisive when selecting a suitable technology for level measurement: This is where competent advice is required, but what distinguishes

## ABB (2013) Pressure Measurement Corrosion and material selection

Wetted parts material ABB-2013-Pressure-Measurement-Corrosion-and-material-selection.pdf

## EMERSON (2014) Micro Motion Corrosion Guide

Coriolis mass flow and density meters are a major advance in flow measurement. These devices have set a precedent for accuracy and repeatability under a wide variety of flow conditions. The inherent precision has established it as a standard for

## Rosemount 1151 and 1144 Spanish Brochure

This is an original brochure from Rosemount Spain about this legenedary pressure instruments. Rosemount – Transmisores de presión y presión diferencial 1151

## Controlair (2010) Bubble-Tube Level System

The L100 Bubble-Tube Level System is comprised of fully self-contained instruments requiring only connections to air or gas supply, dip tube and electrical power source to provide precise level indication. Because only the stationary dip tube and the purged gas come

## Spirax sarco (2000) Orifice plate flowmeters

In many of today’s industrial processes, it is essential to measure accurately the rate of fluid flow within a system as a whole or in part. This applies equally to gases and liquids (e.g. carbon dioxide, nitrogen, liquors etc.) which are an integral part

## EMERSON (2013) Magnetic Flowmeter Material Selection Guide

The purpose of this guide is to provide a general resource for the selection of materials for the magnetic flowmeter. One of the advantages of the electromagnetic flowmeter is that it is suitable for a wide variety of applications including