This document provides a guideline for choosing and installing Rosemount™ Process radar devices in stilling wells and bypass chambers. Even though process radars generally provide robust operation installed in still pipes, all process radars regardless of make or type are
Free-space radar transmitters for level measurement typically use 6, 26 and 80 GHz frequencies. Recently, there has been a lot of hype concerning high frequency radar transmitters, where some manufacturers claim: the higher the frequency the better the performance.
In many applications, higher-accuracy measurements are required to protect the customer from over-billing and the supplier from under-billing. Common products requiring this level of accuracy are typically oils, fuels, edible oils, and alcohols. In the oil & gas industry, this
The technical benefits of radar as a level measurement technique are clear. Radar provides a non-contact sensor that is virtually unaffected by changes in process temperature, pressure or the gas and vapour composition within a vessel. In addition, the measurement
This paper describes the importance of two basic factors (signal to noise ratio and pulse transmission) which defines the performance of this type of level measurement. Guided Wave Radar (GWR), although a new technology relative to the industrial level market,
This old document describes all the basics about level radar technology. It’s a must read document by the young instrumentation technician. KROHNE (1995) Fundamentals of Radar Techniques
Fundamentals of Level Radar Measurement This is a very didactic document from Krohne company. It presents a deep view about the radar technologies and the different method used to measure a level – continuous wave (CW) radar, pulse radar, Time
With over 20 different level measurement technologies on the market today, it is important to choose the right level transmitter for your process conditions. This document provides information on two of the most commonly used level measurement technologies – Ultrasonic
This Level Handbook is written as a user guide for level projects within the power and steam generation industry. Level is a wide subject and it is impossible to cover everything in one single book, but we have aimed to
The refining industry is currently undergoing many changes. The existing refineries are being modernized to stay competitive. These “Brownfield” projects are being designed to upgrade refineries to improve their energy efficiency, maximize throughput and improve product quality. Improvement of energy
The relative dielectric constant (the dk-value) of liquids and bulk solid materials can – next to other influencing factors – be decisive when selecting a suitable technology for level measurement: This is where competent advice is required, but what distinguishes
When using aggressive products, the user is very often confronted with the product compatiblilty of devices. The following resistance list is based on various material charts and is supplemented by our own trials and experiences. These specifications are not always
This document gives an introduction into modern tank gauging, how and where it can be used. Accurate Servo- and Radar gauging, Hydrostatic Tank Gauging (HTG) and the Hybrid Inventory Management System (HIMS), combining the advantages of all systems, are described. An uncertainty analysis of
The perfect level technology that works for every liquid level and point level application does not exist. Hydrostatic pressure has been around, it seems forever, and is proven in many applications. Non-contact radar and guided wave radar level instrumentation are
There are multiple technologies available on the market to measure level. Each and every technology works, when applied properly. This presentation will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of RF Admittance, Capacitance, Ultrasonic, Radar, Nuclear, Differential Pressure, and Bubblers level measurement technologies. BAHNER,M.