## YOKOGAWA (2019) Flow eBook Chapters 1 and 2

The aim of a flow meter is to perform a measurement that helps us find the right answer to questions such as: how many liters of flow do we have currently or how many liters have we used so far?

## EMERSON (2005) Flow Measurement

This manual discusses gas flow measurement based on philosophies expressed in AGA (American Gas Association) and API (American Petroleum Institute) guidelines. NOTE: AGA and API do not certify manufacturers’ equipment for flow measurement. Products of The Flow Computer Division of

## Pressure Temperature Compensation Formula

What is Flow Compensation? Why do you do process temperature and pressure flow compensation? In steam or gas flow measurement, the density of the steam or gas changes as pressure and temperature change. This change in density can affect the accuracy

## KROHNE (2012) Principles of Leak Detection

​Pipeline networks are the most economic and safest method of transport for mineral oil, gases and other fluid products. Pipelines have to meet high demands for safety, reliability and efficiency. Most pipelines, regardless of what they transport, are designed with

## KROHNE (2011) Principles of Electromagnetic Flow Measurement

In many industries, measuring devices and sensors are an important part of process control technology and in equipping automated plants. The significance of flow measurement is reflected in the variety of measuring methods specifically designed for this purpose. Because of

## KROHNE (2003) Fundamental principles of Electromagnetic Flow Measurement

KROHNE-2003-Fundamental-principles-of-Electromagnetic-Flow-Measurement.pdf

## RESTRICTION ORIFICE SIZING VAPOR and GAS FLOW CALCULATOR (RO)

Sorry for the inconvenience! We are consolidating all of our calculators in a new section. Please click here to go !

## MCCROMETER(2011) V-CONE FLOW METER TECHNICAL BRIEF

The McCrometer V-Cone® Flow meter is a patented technology that accurately measures flow over a wide range of Reynolds numbers, under all kinds of conditions and for a variety of fluids. It operates on the same physical principle as other

## RESTRICTION ORIFICE SIZING LIQUID FLOW CALCULATOR (RO)

Sorry for the inconvenience! We are consolidating all of our calculators in a new section. Please click here to go !   1. Overview The restriction orifice (RO) is used basically to control or restrict the flow that flows through

## Siemens (2016) FC430 Coriolis Meter, How it Works

Good Video about Coriolis Flow Measurement Principle.

## Endress Hauser (2015) The Vortex Flow Measuring Principle

Good video about Vortex Flow Measurement from E+H. Watch it!

## ENDRESS & HAUSER (2013) Caudal Principios de Medida

Caudal Principios de Medida El caudal es utilizado a nivel industrial para dos propósitos fundamentales : Control de procesos Contabilidad Los líquidos son esencialmente incompresibles. Los gases y vapores pueden cambiar su volumen bajo la influencia de la presión, lo

## Spirax sarco (2000) Orifice plate flowmeters

In many of today’s industrial processes, it is essential to measure accurately the rate of fluid flow within a system as a whole or in part. This applies equally to gases and liquids (e.g. carbon dioxide, nitrogen, liquors etc.) which are an integral part

## Orifice Plate Installation Guidelines

1.Introduction – Installing an Orifice Meter At the end of this post you will find the EMERSON document who explains the basic orifice plate installation guidelines, including: orifice plate tap orientation orifice plate tapping locations orifice tapping etc… This post

## ABB (2016) Thermal Mass Flowmeter Sensyflow FMT Fundamentals & Measuring Principle

Good introduction on Thermal Mass Flowmeters from ABB. Read it! ABB-2016-Thermal-Mass-Flowmeter-Sensyflow-FMT-Fundamentals-Measuring-Principle.pdf

## Fluid Components International LLC (2016) Best Practices Engineering Guide Installation Recommendations for FCI Single-Point Thermal Dispersion Flow Meters

All flow meter technologies have recommended installation and engineering practices to ensure they meet their published specifications and for optimal performance, accuracy and repeatability. Flow meter users are frequently challenged with wide variations in their actual field conditions and installation

## EMERSON (2015) Flow – DP Flow Introduction

This handbook is intended to help engineers and process technicians bring all the elements of DP Flow together in a comprehensive reference. The book will present enough theory and technical background to provide a solid context for engineering, procurement, and

## EMERSON (2014) How Differential Pressure Flow Works

In this video you will learn about different primary element types and how they work, the conventional to modern transition of installation practices, and the functionalities within a differential pressure transmitter.

## ABB (2011) Industrial Flow Measurement Basics and Practice

In the recent decades, the market for the products of the industrial process industries has changed greatly. The manufacture of mass products has shifted to locations where raw materials are available economically. Competitive pressures have forced a swing to specialization

## ABB (2009) Flowmeter Handbook

​ ABB-2009-Flowmeter-Handbook.pdf

## FOXBORO (2010) Vortex Shedding Tutorial

The vortex shedding flowmeter first emerged 25 to 30 years ago and has steadily grown in acceptance since then to be a major flow measurement technique. Its appeal is due, in part, to the fact that it has no moving

## Endress Hauser (2015) The Coriolis Flow Measuring Principle

Born in 1792, the French mathematician and physicist Gustave Gaspard de Coriolis was the first to describe the force that history has named after him. This force is particularly noticeable in rotating systems. The experiments and simulations shown in this

## FOXBORO (1969) Gas Flow Computing

Very old manual from FOXBORO about gas flow computing using pneumatic computers! Basics about Flow compensation on Pressure and Temperature. Read it! FOXBORO-1969-Gas-Flow-Computing.pdf

## EMERSON (2015) Flow – Fluids Basics and Concepts

This chapter presents an overview of the physical properties of fluids, a review of basic concepts, and covers the fundamentals required to understand the theory of measuring flow, which is presented in Chapter 3. A fluid is a substance that

## EMERSON (2013) Magnetic Flowmeter Material Selection Guide

The purpose of this guide is to provide a general resource for the selection of materials for the magnetic flowmeter. One of the advantages of the electromagnetic flowmeter is that it is suitable for a wide variety of applications including

## ARJAY AUTOMATION (2016) The Principle Behind the Coriolis Mass Flow Meter

Have you ever witnessed this phenomenon? When a hose filled with water swings but it does not twist. But when a water flow is turned on, the water is forced through the swinging hose. The hose twists as a result

## MAGNETROL (2012) Thermal Mass Flow Handbook

Accurate mass flow measurement of gas is difficult to obtain. The main reason is that gas is a compressible fluid. This means that the volume of a fixed mass of gas depends upon the pressure and temperature it is subject

## Micro Motion (1992) Mass Flow and Density Sensor Selection Guide Metric Units Version

Micro-Motion-1992-Mass-Flow-and-Density-Sensor-Selection-Guide.PDF

## EMERSON (2014) Micro Motion Corrosion Guide

Coriolis mass flow and density meters are a major advance in flow measurement. These devices have set a precedent for accuracy and repeatability under a wide variety of flow conditions. The inherent precision has established it as a standard for

## EMERSON (2014) Rosemount Annubar Averaging Pitot Tube Installation

Set of videos showing how to install an Annubar (PITOT) tube. Tools, Orientation Guidelines, Pak-Lok Flowmeter, Flo-Tap Flowmeter Installation. Watch it to learn more! This video explains the tools required to install an Annubar Averaging Pitot Tube, as well as

## How Averaging Pitot Tubes Work – Rosemount Annubar Technology

This video provides a detailed explanation of how Annubar averaging pitot tubes work, including reduction of permanent pressure loss to reduce overall costs. Features and benefits are presented to show how averaging pitot tubes are an ideal flow measurement principle

## EMERSON (2015) Flow – Theory of DP Flow

Chapter 3 covers the theoretical and computational details for DP Flow. Its purpose is two-fold: Introduce industry users to some of the general aspects of fluid flow and specifically DP Flow technologies Explain the underlying assumptions and approaches behind the

## How Multivariable Transmitters Work

This video provides an in depth explanation of how multivariable pressure transmitters combine three measurements into one to lower overall installation cost and make a more accurate flow measurement. The mass flow equation is altered by factors such as density

## Orifice Plate Calculator – FREE

1. Overview The intention of this general description is only to update the basic knowledge of your technical studies, it can also be an introduction to the topic, but the reader must have a basic knowledge about fluid dynamics

## KROHNE (2006) Corrosion & Abrasion Guidelines for Coriolis Meters

​General corrosion guidelines for process vessels, pipework and parts (such as thermo-wells or MID flowmeter earthing rings) cannot be applied to Coriolis mass flowmeters, since they refer to the bulk removal of material from comparatively thick walled components, and they

## EMERSON (2001) Fundamentals of Flow Metering

Measuring fluid flow is one of the most important aspects of process control. In fact, it may well be the most frequently measured process variable. This bulletin describes the nature of flow and factors affecting it. Devices commonly used to

## Emerson (2013) Rosemount DP Flowmeter Rangeability

One of the most common DP Flow Myths is that the rangeability of DP Flow technology is typically 3:1. This misperception is usually promoted by competing technologies that claim “high” rangeability of 20:1 or better. Rangeability is usually defined as

## ABB (2014) The principle of mass flow measurement

Cartoon video about the principle of measurement of a CORIOLIS flow meter. Watch it!

## E+H (2014) Medición Caudal Gases Líquidos y Vapores

Medición de caudal ¡Más importante que nunca! La seguridad de la planta, la constancia en la calidad del producto, la optimización del proceso y la protección medioambiental son sólo algunas razones por las que la medición de caudal se ha hecho cada

## Endress Hauser (2015) The Differential Pressure Flow Measuring Principle

Very interesting VIDEO about how Differential Pressure Flowmeters works! A must for any instrumentation technician! Watch it!

## Endress Hauser (2015) The Thermal Flow Measuring Principle

Interesting VIDEO about Flow Measurement based on Thermal Principle. Watch it!

## Moore (1999) Reference Flow Measurement

Reference flow measurement concepts! Simple and good!   Moore (1999) Reference Flow Measurement

## DRESSER (2003) The Application of Temperature and Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement

COMBINED BOYLE’S – CHARLES’ GAS LAWS To convert measured volume at metered pressure and temperature to selling volume at agreed base pressure and temperature. DRESSER (2003) The Application of Temperature and Pressure Correction Factors in Gas Measurement

## Smith Metering (2000) Fundamentals of Orifice

Throughout the oil and gas industry, there stems the need for accurate, economical measurement of process fluids. Orifice metering satisfies most flow measurement applications and is the most common flow meter in use  today. The orifice meter, sometimes called the head loss flow meter, is

## KROHNE (2000) Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Flow Measurement

Ultrasonic flowmeters have been used in industry for over 20 years for the volumetric flowmetering of liquids, gases and – more recently – steam. Basically, the distinction is made between two methods: The Doppler process In order to work, this

## Daniel Measurement and Control (2014) Gas Turbine Meters

This document gives an introduction to Gas Turbine Meters. The gas industry has a wide variety of measurement equipment to satisfy nearly every application need. Metering is no exception. The bulk of gas measurement in the U.S. is handled by

## SCHWARZ,F.C. (2014) Fundamental Principles of Rotary Displacement Meters

All rotary piston meters, commonly known as rotary meters, utilize the fundamental 1846 lobed impeller design of the Roots brothers.  Originally designed for water pump applications, this fundamental style has been parent to virtually all interweaving rotor designs applied to gas and liquid compression, pumping

## E+H (2014) Medicion Caudal Gases Líquidos y Vapores

Endress+Hauser es un proveedor global de soluciones para instrumentación y automatización. La empresa distribuye instrumentación a los sectores de producción y logística de la industria de procesos, desarrolla sensores y sistemas que obtienen información del proceso, transmiten los datos correspondientes

## Moore (1994) Pressure and Temperature Compensation of an Orifice Meter using the Model 352 Single-loop Controller

This application note focuses on the idea that orifice meters require compensation whenever they are used to measure gas flow in lines that have variable operating pressure and temperature.   Moore (1994) Pressure and Temperature Compensation of an Orifice Meter

## FMC Technologies (2015) Fundamentals of Liquid Turbine Meters

Turbine meters have been used for the custody transfer of refined petroleum products and light crude oils for over 50 years. When correctly applied, they offer high accuracy and long service life over a wide range of products and operating

## FOXBORO (1961) ORIFICE PLATES, FLANGES AND CONNECTIONS

FOXBORO (1961) ORIFICE PLATES, FLANGES AND CONNECTIONS

## INVENSYS (2014) Medidores de Caudal por Presión Diferencial

Medidores de Presion Diferencial La medición de flujo por presión diferencial es la medida de caudal más común hoy en día. Hay tres elementos importantes que se combinan para crear una Medida de Caudal por Presión Diferencial : El elemento primario

## HOFFER FLOW CONTROLS (2016) ESTIMATING ERRORS IN GAS MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS WHICH DO NOT USE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE COMPENSATION

HOFFER-FLOW-CONTROLS-2016-ESTIMATING-ERRORS-IN-GAS-MEASUREMENT-SYSTEMS-WHICH-DO-NOT-USE-TEMPERATURE-AND-PRESSURE-COMPENSATION.pdf

## EMERSON (2015) Daniel Meter – Liquid Turbine Flow Meter

TURBINE METER THEORY The basic theory behind Daniel liquid turbine meters is relatively simple. Fluid flow through the meter impinges upon the turbine blades which are free to rotate about an axis along the center line of the turbine housing.

## SPIRAX SARCO (1997) M410 Orifice Plate Assemblies

SPIRAX SARCO (1997) M410 Orifice Plate Assemblies

## BRISTOL BABCOCK (1989) Flowmeter Applications

BRISTOL BABCOCK (1997) Flowmeter Applications

## Fluid Components International (2012) Installation Recommendations for FCI Single-Point Thermal Dispersion Flow Meters

Optimizing Flow Meter Installation Ensures Performance and Instrument Accuracy All flow meter technologies have recommended installation and engineering practices to ensure they meet their published specifications and for optimal performance, accuracy and repeatability. Flow meter users are frequently challenged with

## Fluid Components International (2009) Transitional Flow Effects on Flow Meter Measuring Accuracy

Vortab Flow Conditioning Eliminates Transitional Flow Effects Vortab flow conditioners are widely recognized and applied in flow metering applications to correct the unpredictable effects of flow profile shifts caused by limited straight-run, upstream pipe geometry changes (e.g. damper positioning) and

## Fluid Components International (2012) Flare Gas Flow Measurement and Control

In oil/gas production, refining and storage operations around the globe, flare gas systems are used to burn-off and dispose of waste, excess or off-gases, and as a safety system. The accurate, responsive and reliable measurement of flare gas is essential

## Fluid Components International (2008) Comparison of Differential Pressure and Thermal Dispersion Technologies

As the costs of fuels and consumables (natural gas, hydrogen, oxygen, etc.) continue to rise, the ability to accurately measure the amount used in a process becomes significant in controlling costs and determining bottom line profits. It may have been

## TUVNEL (2010) Selecting a Flow Meter

Introduction With a very large number of different flow meters based on over a hundred different operating principles, selecting a flow meter for a specific task can be a daunting prospect for even the most experienced metering engineer. With so

## ABB (2014) Two Phase Flow Considerations for Coriolis Meters

This small doc gives the instrumentation technician the basic knowledge about this important issue regarding the coriolis flowmeters and also other technologies. ABB (2014) Two Phase Flow Considerations for Coriolis Meters

## DANIEL MEASUREMENT (2010) Fundamentals of Orifice Meter Measurement

What is an Orifice Meter? An orifice meter is a conduit and a restriction to create a pressure drop. An hour glass is a form of orifice. A nozzle, venturi or thin sharp edged orifice can be used as the

## ROSEMOUNT (1995) Magnetic Flowmeter Fundamentals

The magnetic flowmeter is one of the most flexible and universally applicable flow measurement systems available. It provides completely obstructionless flow metering, is nearly insensitive to fluid properties, and is capable of measuring the harshest corrosive fluids. It installs like

## TUVNEL (2010) Introductory guide to differential pressure flow meters

This is a basic guide to differential pressure flowmeters, it provides information about the different types of meters available and their main advantages and disadvantages. They also include fundamental background information to understand how the flowmeters work. TUVNEL (2010) Introductory